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The new urban poor, in contrast to the white and brown-skinned political, merchant, and professional upper classes threw in sharp relief the status of the island as a plural society.

In 1944, with the granting of a new constitution, Jamaicans gained universal suffrage.

Identity also is defined by a religious tradition in which there is minimal separation between the sacred and the secular, manipulable spiritual forces (as in obeah ), and ritual dance and drumming; an equalitarian spirit; an emphasis on self-reliance; and a drive to succeed economically that has perpetuated Eurocentric cultural ideals. The indigenous Taino natives of the region, also referred to as Arawaks, have left evidence of material and ideational cultural influence.

Jews came as indentured servants to help establish the sugar industry and gradually became part of the merchant class.

East Indians and Chinese were recruited between the 1850s and the 1880s to fill the labor gap left by ex-slaves and to keep plantation wages low.

The East Indians and Chinese arrived as indentured laborers. The official language is English, reflecting the British colonial heritage, but even in official contexts a number of creole dialects that reflect class, place, and social context are spoken. The national motto, which was adopted after independence from Great Britain in 1962, is "Out of many, one people." In the national flag, the two black triangles represent historical struggles and hardship, green triangles represent agricultural wealth and hope, and yellow cross-stripes represent sunshine and mineral resources. Jamaica was a Spanish colony from 1494 to 1655 and a British colony from 1655 to 1962.

The colonial period was marked by conflict between white absentee owners and local managers and merchants and African slave laborers.

After independence, there was conflict between plantation and industrial economic interests and those of small, peasant cultivators and landless laborers.

In the 1920s, rural, landless unemployed persons moved into the Kingston-Saint Andrew area in search of work.

Divided into fourteen parishes, it is 4,244 square miles (10,990 square kilometers) in area. Fifty-three percent of the population resides in urban areas.

The Spanish wrote the name used by the native Taino, "Yamaye," as "Xaymaca." The Taino word is purported to mean "many springs." The abbreviated name, "Ja" and the Rastafarian term "Jamdung" (Jamdown) are used by some residents, along with "Yaahd" (Yard), used mainly by Jamaicans abroad, in reference to the deterritorialization of the national culture. Jamaica, one of the Greater Antilles, is situated south of Cuba.

In 1872, Kingston, with a quarter of the population, became the capital. The population is 90 percent black, 1 percent East Indian, and 7 percent mixed, with a few whites and Chinese.

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The black demographic category includes the descendants of African slaves, postslavery indentured laborers, and people of mixed ancestry.

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